Wild Harvest Pine Trees (Scots Pine / Pinus Sylvestris), Certified Organic Fennel Seeds (Foeniculum vulgare),
Dandelion (Taraxacum) and whole Star Anise (Illicium verum)
The major source of shikimic acid found in Pine Needles which grows in Europe and Star Anise that grows on small trees native to China.
The research has been funded from a variety of sources, including the Maine Technology Institute, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the National Science Foundation and the university’s chemistry department.
From the study:
Shikimic acid, when separated by HPLC, exhibited a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate and collagen in rabbits. Because of the relative high content and good antiplatelet-aggregating activity of shikimic acid, the Masson pine needles can be used as a potential source of shikimic acid.
…achieved about a 6% yield of shikimic acid from Masson pine needles, which is possibly the highest extracted yield from any pine species till now (Chen et al. 2014). Since pine needles are inexpensive and readily available in North Asia, North America, and Europe, there is a strong possibility to utilize them as a drug manufacturer against less available star anise species.
That study found that pine needles provide about two-thirds the shikimic acid of star anise herb:
Masson pine needles = 5.71% shikimic acid
Star anise = 8.95% shikimic acid
So we know that pine needles, which are extremely common across North America, China and Europe, provide shikimic acid, a kind of “miracle” molecule that may prove incredibly useful for halting blood clots and defending people from respiratory infections.